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India and Afghanistan Relation

India and Afghanistan Relation

Some major identifiers

Sir Mortimer Durand- Durand line, dividing Pakistan-Afghanistan border 

- FATA- Federally administered tribal region

- Chabahar Port: Built by India in Iran

- India's only military base out side India- In Tajikistan to fight Talibanis, at Farkhor air base

- Azad Kashmir Capital: Muzaffarabad

- Fazilka- TAPI ends here

Projects in Afghanistan

1. Delaram-Jarang Highway, 218 Km long, Route 606, Cost USD 110 million

2. Herat-Salma Dam Power Project

3. 220 Kv Transmission line from Kabul to Pol-e-Khomri

4. The Parliament of Afghanistan 

5. Hagigak-Chabahar Railway line, 900 Km long proposed, will help India bypass Pakistan completely, India's reply to China made Gwadar Port.

6. SAIL-Lead Consortium- Hagigak Iron Ore mining + Steel Mill + Power Plant, USD 10.80 Billion FDI

Events Timeline

1. 3000 BCE- Indus Valley Civilization

2. 330 BCE- Greek Invasion, Selucid Zymnosophist, Selucid Empire 

3. 305 BCE- Peace Treaty between Selucid and Chandragupta Maurya

4. Multiple invasion, Islamisation, Mongols, Genghis Khan 

5. 19th Century CE- British Rule

6. 19th Century CE- Sikh Rule

7. 20 August 1920- Treaty of Rawalpindi between Britishers and Aman Ullah Khan 

8. Upto 14 January 1929, Aman Ullah Khan modernises Afghanistan and alienates the Radicals 

9. 14 January 1929- Habib Ullah Kalkani wins Kabul, Aman Ullah Abdicates 

10. November 1929- Prince Nadir Shah executes Habib Ullah Kalkani, wins Kabul and becomes King.

11. Upto 1933 gradual modernisation by Nadir Shah

12. 8th November 1933- Abdul Khaliq kills Nadir Shah

13. November 1933- Zahir Shah, Nadir Shah's son becomes King

14. 1964- Zahir Shah introduces new democratic constitution and election, the communist PDPA formed (1 Jan 1965)

15. 17th July 1973- Md. Daoud Khan siges power from his cousin King Zahir, only 8 people killed in a bloodless coup (Zahir shah ruled for four decades got closed to USSR)

16. 1973- Daoud declared Afghanistan as Secular Republic, becomes president, Loya Jirga (Grand Assembly-Paliament), Kabul Residence was 'Arg' palace.

17. 1975- Pakistan PM Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, through ISI starts a proxy war in Afghanistan (so that it becomes a puppet state), some trainees were Jalaluddin Haqqani, Ahmed Shah Masud (Masud Day celebrated in Afghanistan-Killed 48 Hours before WTC attack), Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, Daod Khan forms the National Revolutionary Party in 1975 (Ended in 1978)

18. 1973-77: PDPA grows closer to USSR, Daod Khan puts up new Constitution in 1977 and tries to moderate the Socialist Policy, Moscow gets angry at Daod.

19. 27 April 1978: Saur Revolution (Saur-Taurus- Bull), Communist PDPA overthrows the Afghan government, Doud Khan and his entire family Killed, Three leaders of PDPA emerged- Noor Mohammad Taraki, Hafiz Ullah Amin, Babrak Karmal. Democratic Republic of Afghanistan established. Taraki is President.

20. September 1979: Amin kills Taraki, becomes moderate, distances himself from USSR.

21. 25 December 1979: Soviet Tanks roll-in. USA+PAKISTAN starts armying Mujahideen (Who struggles in the name of Allah); Major Mujahideen leaders- Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, Ahmed Shah Masud, Abdul Rashid Dostum; Osama Bin Laden reaches Afghanistan.

22. 27 December 1979: Amin Killed by Soviets, Babrak Karmal made the President, Government was communist, Name of the country- Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. 

23. 1986: Mohammad Najibullah succeeded Babrak Karmal (Soviet Leader- Mikhail Gorbachev) 

24. 1988: Al- Qaeda (The base) formed.

25. 1989-90: Collapse of USSR

26. 1990: Laden returned to Saudi Arabia as Hero, Kuwait invaded by Iraq, Saudi callas for USA help, Bin Laden criticises Royal family, Banishes to Sudan.

27. 1989-92: Civil War, Collapse of Nazib Ullah government, Taliban formed in 1991. Peshawar accord signed on 24th April. Post communist state, Islamic state of Afghanistan created, various group got something

28. Burhanuddin Rabbani became President 

29. Ahmed Shah Masud Defence Minister (Jamiat-e-Islami)

30. Gulbuddin Hekmatyar offered for PM but refused, Keeps fighting, Pakistan support.

31. 194-96: Taliban emerges under Mullah Mohammed Omar, becomes a militia (non-state army)

32. 1995: Taliban attacks Kabul, Masud defeats them.

33. 26th September 1996, Taliban starts major attack on Kabul supported by Pakistan and UAE. Masud retreat.

34. 27th September 1996: Islamic Emirates of Afghanistan created, Capital at Kandahar, tortured and killed Nazibullah (Hanges with Metal wire), Masud and Dostam formed Northern alliance with full India support, Laden reaches Afghanistan; delares war on USA.

35. 1996-2001: Taliban government.

36. 1998: Dostam defeat with the fall of Majar-e-sharif (Northern alliance)

37. 9th September 2001: Masud assassinated by Al-Qaeda, 48 hours before 9/11 attack (National Hero); 9th September is called Masud Day.

38. 11 Sep 2001: WTC attack; Bin Laden denies role (accepts in 2004); USA pushes Taliban to hand over Laden.

39. 7 October 2001: USA alongwith NATO launched attack in Afghanistan 

40. November 2001: USA & UK joined hand with Northern alliance 

41. 12 November 2001: Kabul won; Taliban Flees; Hamid Karzai became president of interim government, Zahir Shah recalled from Italy, Loya Jirga convened (assembled)

42. 2004: Election Held, Karzai won.

43. 2006: IASF (International Security Assistance Force) starts replacing US troops

44. 2006-11: USA Troops increased (The Surge- Name given); Battle with Taliban continues 

45. 2009: President election, Karzai wins again

46. 2nd May 2011: Bin Laden Killed by USA seals in Abbottabad 

47. 2014: Elections, Ashraf Ghani became president, Abdullah Abdullah became CEO (Both are ex-Northern alliance warrior)   

*Images used in this article is not claimed by the owner of the website and and are copied from various Internet sources. 

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